|1923 Ford Dealers Data Book|
Every Ford Dealer was furnished with a small booklet which detailed the features and details of the Model T, the TT and the Fordson Tractor. Included were the prices and work sheets for the dealer to add the freight and taxes to the factory price, as well as hints and suggestions on methods of selling the Ford line. Following is what was contained in the Ford car section of the 1923 issue of this booklet.
|Ford, The Universal Car|
Depends on absolute accuracy in the manufacture of each individual part that goes into Ford Products.
|Important Sale Factors|
Following are the important factors which will show the prospective purchaser how the Ford
car will meet his requirements best.
|Better Cars at Lower Prices|
Ford cars are always low in price.
Front License Bracket
New crankcase bearings and front spring clip, strengthens spring and makes spring more resilient
Aug 1July 31
|* This weight of Coupe and Sedan includes starter and demountables. Other cars equipped with starter,
add 95 pounds. 55 pounds additional for demountable rims and tire carrier.|
# Four Door Sedan
Fuel Tank Capacities
The old “round” gasoline tanks, as used on all Fords for many years, were of approximately
10 gallons capacity. These tanks were used on all touring and roadsters of earlier than 1920 make, and even on some
of the 1920 models. With these round tanks, it will be noticed that one gallon, at the bottom of the tank, takes more
than twice as much depth as a gallon near the middle.
|Gallons||Square Tank||Round Tank||Oval Tank|
|Gallons||Square Tank||Round Tank||Oval Tank|
|Canadian Fordson Tractor Fuel Gauge|
|Improvements in Ford Two-Door Sedan and Coupe Bodies|
Several changes in design, as well as interior refinements, have recently been made in
Sedan and Coupe bodies, which add greatly to their comfort, convenience and appearance. The more important changes follow:
|Summary of Improvements in the Ford Two-Door Sedan Body|
1. New upholstering throughout.
|Features of the Four-Door Sedan||
6,000,000th Ford Motor Built on May 18th, ’22
"Ford Motor number 6,000,000 was lifted from the assembly line In the Highland Park Ford plant
at 9:14 A. M., May 18th," says a report from the Ford Motor Company, which adds that “just 5-1/3 seconds later number
6,000,001 was finished.”
4 Out of 5 Ford Cars Still in Operation
Out of a total of 5,517,956 Ford Model “T” cars and trucks sold In the United States since 1908,
4,478,248 are still in daily service.
Low Operation Cost
“How much does it cost to operate a Ford car?”
|Gasoline and oil||.0210|
|(Approximately 3-1/3 cents)|
|Model A—Runabout||850||Model B-Touring||2000|
|Model A with Tonneau||950||Model C-Runabout||900|
|Model C-with Tonneau||1000|
|Model B-Touring||2000||Model N-Runabout||600|
|Model F-Touring||1000||Model R-Runabout||750|
|October 1, 1907, to September 30 1908||October 1, 1908|
|Model K-Roadster||2800||Model T-Touring||850|
|Model T-Town Car||1000|
|1909 to October 1||October 1, 1909|
|Model R-Runabout||750||Model T-Touring||950|
|Model S-Runabout||700||Model T-Tourabout||950|
|Model S-Roadster||950||Model T-Roadster||900|
|Model T-Town Car||1700|
|October 1, 1910||October 1, 1911|
|own Car||960||Town Car||900|
|October 1, 1912||October 1, 1913|
|Town Car||800||Town Car||750|
|August 1. 1913||August 1, 1914|
|Town Car||750||Town Car||690|
|August 1. 1915||August 1, 1916|
|Town Car||640||Town Car||595|
|August 1. 1917||October 6, 1917|
|February 21. 1918||April 1, 1918|
|August 16. 1918||April 1, 1919|
|Coupelet *||750||June 16, 1919|
|Truck Chassis **||550|
|Truck Chassis **||590|
|Demountable Rims and|
Spare Rim Carrie
30x3-1/2 Tire all around
|* Includes starter and demountable
** With solid tires
*** With Pneumatic tires
|March 3, 1920||September 22, 1920|
|Sedan (with starter)||975||Sedan||795|
|Coupe (with starter)||850||Coupe||745|
|Truck (Pneumatic)||640||Truck Chassis #||545|
|Tractor||850||Demountable Rims (Open Cars)||25 extra|
|Demountable Rims (Open cars)||25 extra||Starter (Open Cars)||10 extra|
|Starter (Open Cars)||15 extra|
|# With starter and demountable rims|
|January 26, 1921||September 2, 1921|
|June 7, 1921||Sedan #||660|
|Sedan #||760||Truck Chassis ##||545|
|Truck Chassis ##||495|
|Tractor||625||# With starter and demountable rims|
## Pneumatic tires and Demountable Rims
|January 16, 1922||January 27, 1922|
|Sedan #||645||October 17, 1922|
|Truck Chassis ##||430||Sedan (2 door) #||595|
|Tractor||625||Sedan (4 door) #||725|
|Truck Chassis ##||495||Chassis||235|
|Truck Chassis ##||380|
THE FORD POWER PLANT
The first model “T” Ford engine was made in 1908. It was the perfected development of Henry
Ford’s motor inventions dating back sixteen years to 1892 when be built his first little one-cylinder motor.
|Ford Mechanical Facts|
Piston 3/4 lbs. lighter due to recent improvements
|Details of Ford Engine Construction|
The Ford Model “T” motor is a 4-cylinder, 4-cycle, internal combustion, gasoline engine, with 4”
stroke and 3-3/4” bore. Valves are of the poppet type, arranged on one side of the cylinders, known as L-head
construction, cylinders are cast en bloc and water jacketed, the upper part of the crankcase containing the
crankshaft bearings, being integral with the cylinders. The water jacketed cylinder head containing the combustion
chambers is removable from the cylinder case. The engine and transmission are a unit and this unit power plant is
supported in the chassis frame on the three-point principle.
The head is bolted to the case with 7/16” No. 14 U.S.S. thread bolts, 15 in all. The magneto coil is now bolted to the radius at the rear end of the case. It is shimmed so that the distance from the crankshaft flange to a plane passing through the face of the coil is 27/32.”
The Ford transmission is built with the flywheel as a unit. This weight added to that of the magnets carried on the flywheel makes possible the use of an unusually tight flywheel casting. The distance from the magnet clamp faces to the depression in the center to which the crankshaft flange is bolted should be 13/16”—53/64.” The flywheel and transmission assembly is bolted to the crankshaft flange with four l-3/16” x 7/16” x 20 thread Cap Screws and is located by two pins .468” in diameter. The clearance between the faces of magnet clamps and coil core faces should be not less than .025” or more than .040.”
The Manifolds, intake and exhaust, are bolted in position connecting to their proper ports with copper and asbestos gaskets interposed. Studs 3/8” x 24 thread, clamp and nuts are used for this purpose. The magneto contact point is fastened to the transmission cover by three screws and the engine assembly is completed.
The block consists of a support for the assembled power plant, and a 20 H.P. motor with suitable universal joint linkage to connect to the engine to be tested.
The engines are run on the block for a period of eleven minutes at a speed of 700 to 1000 R.P.M. The voltage of the magneto is tested by connecting the coil terminals to an alternating current volt meter which should indicate 14 volts or more.
There are four important points to keep in mind at all times:
1. That there are three gears forming the triple gear assembly which are riveted together (at the present time all a re cut out of the one piece of steel), and whatever one gear does the other two must do also.
2. That whatever the action of the 27-tooth central or driven gear is the action of the car; that is, when the car is standing still the driven gear is stationary, when the car is going forward in low the driven gear is revolving in the same direction as the flywheel, but at a lower speed, in high the driven gear turns in the same direction as the flywheel and at the same speed; in reverse the driven gear turns in the opposite direction to the flywheel.
3. That the clutch is used only in direct drive or high speed.
4. That the triple gears are only used to get low and reverse.
When the car is standing still and the engine running, the neutral position is obtained in two ways, either:
(a) by putting the control lever in the vertical position which causes the quadrant on the control lever shaft to press the set screw upward in the end of the cross shaft of the “T” shaped clutch shift shaft. This in turn presses the clutch shift backwards, compressing the clutch spring. Pressure is thus taken off the clutch discs and the small discs permitted to turn with the engine but not transmitting power to the large discs which are fastened to the brake drum, drive plate, drive plate sleeve, universal joint, drive shaft, and rear axle.
(b) By pressing the clutch pedal half way forward, and by so doing the extension on the lower end of the pedal presses the clevis which connects the pedal and clutch shift shaft downward; this turns the clutch shift shaft and depresses the clutch spring the same as when the control lever is pulled back.
When the car is driven in high or direct, the control lever is pushed forward so the quadrant does not come in contact with the clutch shift set screw, and the clutch pedal is allowed to come all the way back; this permits the clutch spring to press against the clutch fingers with a pressure of ninety pounds, which in turn presses the clutch push ring dowel pins, and by the leverage of the fingers increases the pressure from ninety to three hundred and twenty-four pounds.
Therefore, the small and large discs are clamped together with a pressure of 324 pounds making a direct connection with the crankshaft, transmission shaft, disc drum, small disc, large disc, brake drum, drive plate, drive plate sleeve, universal joint, drive shaft, and rear axle.
Action in Neutral
When the operator wishes to stop the car but not the engine, he presses the clutch pedal half way down which permits the small discs to run independently of the large ones. Now recalling Rule 2, that whatever the car is doing, the twenty-seven tooth driven gear is also doing; if the car is standing still the stationary parts are the wheels, rear axle, drive shaft, drive plate, universal joint, brake drum, brake drum sleeve, and driven gear.
In mesh with the driven gear are the three triple drive gears which also have 27 teeth. The dowel pins, which are pressed into the flywheel, form the axes of the triple gears, so as the flywheel revolves, it carries the triple gears around with it, and as the drums are free to revolve, the 27 teeth of the drive gear just mesh with the 21 teeth of the driven gear in one revolution of the flywheel; therefore, while the flywheel is making one revolution, the triple gears make one revolution on their own axis, no more and no less. So you may see in order to have the car stand still while the engine is running, it is necessary that the triple gears make just one revolution while the flywheel makes one revolution. If the triple gear makes more than one revolution, power will be transmitted to the driven gear; if it makes less than a revolution while the flywheel makes one revolution it will transmit power to the driven gear, but in the opposite direction.
Driving the car in reverse is done by pressing the reverse, or central pedal, forward. In doing so the band is tightened around the reverse drum which is the drum nearest the flywheel: fastened to this drum is a 30-tooth reverse drum gear, which is also held stationary. In mesh with the 30-tooth reverse drum gear is the 24-tooth reverse triple gear. The triple gears are all fastened together and what the triple gear does the other two triple gears must do. When the 30-tooth drum gear is held stationary, the 24-tooth triple gear, which is in mesh with it, the axis of which is fastened to the flywheel, revolves around the 30-tooth gear. But it is plain to see that while a 24-tooth gear is revolving around a 30-tooth gear, it will turn six teeth, or 1/4 of a revolution more than a revolution, but in order that the car stand still, the triple gear must make just one revolution on its own axis while the flywheel is making one revolution; so, if the 24-tooth triple gear makes one-quarter more than a revolu-tion while the flywheel is making a revolution, the 27-tooth drive gear will also make 1-1/4 revolutions, and in doing so will force the 27-tooth driven or central gear 1/4 revolution in the opposite direction, or the difference between the one revolution that the drive gear must make and the 1-1/4 that it does really make. Therefore, if the 27-tooth driven gear makes 1/4 of a revolution in reverse for one revolution of the flywheel, it will make one complete revolution in reverse in four revolutions of the flywheel. If the drive gear makes a revolution, the drive shaft will also. But in order to get the ratio of the engine to the rear wheels there is another ratio in the axle to consider.
The drive shaft pinion having 11 teeth and the ring gear 40 teeth, makes a ratio of 40 divided by 11 = 3-7/11. Now in order to get the total ratio of the engine to rear wheels in reverse the two ratios must be multiplied. 3-7/11 x 4 = 40/11 x 4 = 160/11 or 14-6/11.
If low speed is desired the clutch pedal or the one to the left is pressed all the way forward. In doing so a band is tightened around the center or low speed drum which is held stationary. The gear attached to this drum has 21 teeth. The triple gear that meshes with this 21-tooth drum gear has 33 teeth. Now remembering the action in neutral, the triple gear makes just one revolution, while the flywheel is making one revolution. In reverse there was action transmitted to the driven gear because the triple gear made more than a revolution while the flywheel was making a revolution, but in the case of low the triple gear makes less than a revolution while the flywheel makes a revolution.
The 21-tooth gear being stationary the 33-tooth gear revolving around it only permits 21 of the 33 teeth to be used. In high or direct drive the triple gears are not in action at all, the gears are all meshed together and act as a lock and carry the transmission assembly around as a unit at the same speed as the flywheel. In neutral the 27-tooth drive gear simply idles around the 27-tooth driven gear and there is no action transmitted to the driven gear. These are the two extremes.
If the 21-tooth drum gear is held stationary, the 33-tooth triple gear revolves around it, and instead of the triple gear making 1/2 revolution while the flywheel is making a revolution, it makes 21/33 of a revolution, because while it is traveling around the drum gear only 21 teeth of the 33-tooth triple gear are used. If the 33-tooth triple gear makes only 21/33 of a revolution the 27-tooth drive gear makes only 21/33 of a revolution; therefore, the triple gears lack 12/33 or the difference between 21/33 and 33/33 of making a revolution on their own axis while the flywheel is making a revolution.
The right hand pedal is the brake pedal, and when this pedal is pressed the band is tightened around the brake drum, and being connected directly to the rear axle, stops the car whenever the drum is stopped.
The Ford ignition system is known as the High Tension Jump Spark System. It includes the following parts:
Magneto—to provide current (alternating).
Induction Coil or Coil Units—to transform the primary (magneto) current of 8 to 30 volts into a secondary current of 8000 to 20,000 volts. This is necessary, as a current must be provided which can jump an air gap of at least 1/4 inch.
Commutator or Timer—(a) to close primary circuit and produce a spark in the cylinder at the proper time to fire the charge and start the power stroke; (b) to control passage of current through different coils according to the firing order; (c) to advance and retard the spark.
Switch—to start or stop current.
Spark Plug—to conduct high tension current into combustion chamber and provide a gap across which it can jump so as to ignite the explosive mixture.
Wiring—to conduct current from one part to another.
Type—Flywheel type, rotating magnets, stationary field, alternating low tension current. This magneto is of the inductor type, but unlike the other inductor type magnetos, the magnets themselves serve as inductors. It is designed to be mounted on the flywheel, thereby becoming a part of the power plant. It is protected from mechanical injury and moisture which tends to short circuit and damage it, by the same case that houses the transmission. The coils are stationary to avoid trouble from commutation or moving contacts.
Magneto—is composed of 16 “V” shaped permanent magnets, mounted on, but magnetically insulated from the flywheel, and sixteen coils wound of insulated copper tape, one quarter of an inch wide and .015” thick, 25 turns to a coil, mounted on bosses on the magneto frame. The coils are wrapped with cambric, with fiber inserts in the center, and bristol board insulating washers beneath when mounted on the bosses. The coils are connected with the winding of consecutive coils in opposite directions.
Magnets—are mounted with similar poles of adjacent magnets together making 16 magnetic poles each, having twice the strength of a single magnet pole, so in each revolution of the flywheel the magnetism in the boss of each coil reverses sixteen times, producing sixteen electrical impulses, which at ordinary engine speed produces a continuous alternating current of a much higher frequency than is used for house lighting. Because of this fact it is possible to operate lights from the magneto.
The Coil Unit
The coil unit consists of a soft iron core, primary coil, secondary coil, condenser, and the upper and lower bridge. The coil unit is also called an induction coil. Induction is the process by which a current is produced in one wire by another current running in another wire, near the first but not touching it.
Construction—The soft iron core is made up of 160 to 170 pieces of No. 20 Swedish soft iron wire and well insulated from the primary coil, which is wound around it, by a heavy paper tube in which the core is packed.
Primary Coil—is made up of two layers of No. 19 insulated copper wire, the first layer having 112 turns and the second 110 turns. The primary coil is then impregnated in hot paraffin and rosin for 20 minutes. This cements the pieces of wire in the core together, insulates and holds the windings of the primary in place.
Secondary Coil—is composed of 16,400 turns of No. 38 enameled copper wire, and between each two layers are three layers of paper insulation. The coil is wrapped in two spools with forty-one layers on each spool. The reason for building the coil in two spools is because there will not be as many volts difference between the con-secutive layers at the same end of the coil as if it was wound in one spool. By wrapping in two spools the difference in voltage between the consecutive layers at the same end is just half as much as if it was wound in one spool, and consequently, the thickness of the insulation between the layers is reduced one-half and the diameter of the coil is reduced proportionately. The secondary coil is then placed in a vacuum tank for twenty minutes at 220 degrees F. to make sure all moisture is drawn out; then it is submerged in hot wax. A heavy piece of wax paper is wrapped around the primary coil and it is placed within the secondary coil, making the induction coil complete.
The Condenser—is composed of two pieces of tin-foil 7 ft. long and 3-1/2” wide. One piece of this tin-foil is placed on the other one but 1/8” to one side, with two layers of glassine paper insulation between and one layer on top and one layer on the bottom. It is then rolled up into a roll and placed in a vacuum tank for twenty minutes at 220°F. and then boiled in paraffin for twenty minutes, after which it is taken out and pressed, and to each end terminals are attached. The condenser must test from three to four microfarads. The condenser terminals have no electrical connection within the condenser. These terminals are connected in the primary circuit with one terminal on each side of the contact points. The condenser is used to absorb the current of primary windings at the breaking of the contact points and thus prevent it from arcing across the points, which would soon burn them. As soon as the condenser is charged it seeks the path of least resistance to discharge or neutralize itself, which is through the coil in the opposite direction. This causes the magnetic field about the coil to collapse very quickly. The more rapid the fall of the primary current the greater the force of the induced current in the secondary winding.
The Upper Bridge—is stamped out of brass and to this at the terminal post end is riveted a cushion spring which is stamped from bronze. The other end of the cushion spring contains a tungsten steel point and this end is held from .003 to .005” from the upper bridge by a spacer rivet.
The Lower Bridge—is a copper spring by means of which the amperage can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the tension on the armature which is attached to the lower bridge by means of two screws. The armature is stamped out of Swedish steel and has a tungsten steel point on the free end, directly under and in line with the tungsten steel point on the cushion spring.
The parts are placed in coil box, with the exception of the upper and lower bridge, which are placed on top, in their relative positions and tar from 300 to 350°F. is poured around them, holding them in place, insulating them from each other, and protecting from dampness. The space between points is adjusted from .029 to .031”. Coils are adjusted from 1.2 to 1.4 amperes.
The commutator effects the make and break in the primary circuit. On it depends the point at which the spark plug will fire.
Parts of Commutator or Timer:roller brush or center, segments, shaft, terminals, cover. The roller is attached to the end of the camshaft and revolved with it at half the speed of the crankshaft. The brush or roller makes contact with the insulated contact points, of which there are four in the commutator cover. When roller comes in contact with one of the insulated points, the coil unit connected with it becomes operative. After the roller passes over the point, the coil unit is inoperative. The commutator cover is connected with the spark lever on steering column by a pull rod connection. By this lever the spark is advanced or retarded.
No pump is required in the Ford system. All moving parts of the motor are kept well oiled by this system. The only opening into the crankcase is the breather pipe. Any oil which may be “pumped” to the top of the pushrods is automatically drained back Into the crankcase by two small holes, just inside the valve door. The Ford oiling system is highly efficient, has proved satisfactory over a long period of years, and is more fool-proof than any other in use today. The only attention required, other than replenishing the oil supply from time to time, is to wash out the crankcase every 750 to 1,000 miles.
It is light in weight, strongly built, an efficient cooler, and is easily repaired. It permits an easy circulation of both air and water. Such is the radiator on the Ford Model “T.” The use of a large number of small tubes fitted into a series of flat strips of sheet metal (or fins) makes a core which is more substantial and more efficient than the almost obsolete type of large tubes surrounded by helical fins. The top tank and sides of the Ford radiator are covered by a shell of black enameled sheet steel which enhances the appearance of the car, and has a more durable finish than would be possible were the enamel applied directly to the radiator proper. Thisis simply slipped on, and held in place by the two bolts which hold the radiator to the car frame’s side members.
The parts of the Ford radiator are: filler cap, filler cap gasket, filler flange, top tank top, top tank front, top tank back, upper header top tank top reinforcement angles, splash plate upper water connection, overflow pipe, overflow pipe straps, hood rod socket; hood rod socket washer, side walls, fins, tubes, support, lower header, bottom tank, bottom tank brackets, lower water connection.
The radiator core or body conists of 95 tubes 1/4” in dia., 17-3/8” long, and 0.005” in thickness), 87 fins, radiator support, and the lower header. When the core has been assembled it is placed on a conveyor which carries it through an oven at 425°-450° F. This temperature is sufficient to melt the solder on the various parts bf the core, thus automatically soldering them rigidly in place; Both water connection, hood rod socket, and radiator support are tinned to prevent their rusting when in contact with the water.
The fins of the latest Model “T” radiator present a combined radiating surface of 54.63 sq. ft. The 95 tubes expose to the air an additional area of 8.94 sq. ft. Thus we find that we have a total radiating surface of 63.57 sq. ft. A better comprehension of this area can be had if we consider it as the area of a plate 8 ft. wide and 8 ft. high. All this is accomplished in a radiator core 19” long, 2-5/8” in breadth, and 17-3/8” high.
The 95 tubes of the Ford radiator hold 70.58 cu. in. of water or 17% of the water in the entire radiator. Each cu. in. of water in the tubes has a radiating area of 113.6 sq. in. Of the 3 gallons of water in the Ford cooling system 2 gallons is in the radiator; the remainder is in the water jackets of the motor and the two pipes leading to them.
Construction and Material Used—The frame is made up of two long straight side members, and front and rear cross members. Side members are made of channel section pressed steel. Front cross member is bent down to form a support for the semi-elliptic transverse spring. Rear cross member is bent upward to fit the arch of the rear cross spring and to add more strength.
Dimensions—Length of side members of the Model “T” 100 inches.
Length of side members of the Model “TT” 123-25/32inches.
Width of front cross member of Model “T” 23 inches.
Width of front cross member of Model “TT” 23 inches.
Width of rear cross member of Model “T” 25-1/8” to center line of bracket holes.
Width of rear cross member of Model “TT” 32-5/8” to center line of body bracket holes.
Method of joining parts—Hot riveting.
By this method the rivet contracts as it cools, thus filling the hole in frame.
Brackets—These are used to support the body, running boards, truss rods, fenders, lamps, control rod quadrant. They are fastened to the frame by rivets, excepting the fender and lamp brackets, which are bolted.
Truss Rods—Purpose-—To give added support to the frame. Are used on running board brackets.
The universal joint
The drive shaft
The drive shaft housing
The drive shaft roller bearing housing
The drive shaft pinion
The differential drive gear
The two axle shafts
The two hub brake camshafts
The two-hub brake pull rods
The two hub brake shoes
Right half rear axle housing
Left half rear axle housing
The universal joint consists of a male and female knuckle joint which are assembled in two rings—riveted together; when assembled this forms a link in the train of power transmission through which power can be sent at any angle not exceeding 45°. The male knuckle has a square end which slips into a square hole in the transmission drive plate assembly. The ball joint acts as a housing for the universal joint and holds it rigid and, at the proper distance from the transmission. The female knuckle of the transmission fits over and Is pinned to the square end of the drive shaft.
The drive shaft is 1.062 to 1.063 inch in diameter x 53-5/8 to 53-3/4” long. On the upper end it is square and tapers at the other end about 1.” It runs through the drive shaft housing or torque tube to the differential assembly in the rear axle housing. The drive shaft pinion gear is keyed to the tapered end and drawn up by a 5/8” x 18 thread castellated nut and cotter pinned.
There are three bearings on this drive shaft. First, the babbitt bearing at the forward end of the drive shaft, just back of the universal joint. This babbitt bearing is placed there because there is very little wear or bearing strain at this joint. In reality this bearing is simply a guide bearing. Next there is a Hyatt roller bearing at the rear end of the drive shaft just in front of the drive shaft pinion.
When the car is in motion there is a tendency for the drive shaft to thrust up toward the front This is due to the fact that the drive shaft pinion is a bevel pinion and meshes with the differential drive gear, which is also bevel. This end thrust pushes the bevel drive shaft pinion forward. Directly in front of this pinion is the drive shaft roller bearing and in front of this the ball bearing which butts against the flange of the drive shaft tubing.
The Assembly of the Drive Shaft
In assembling these parts on the drive shaft the ball bearing is placed on first; it is prevented from going beyond its proper position by the shoulder which is formed when the end of the drive shaft is finished. A thick washer is next put on the shaft so that the end motion of the roller bearing will not wear into the ball bearings. A hardened sleeve is pressed on to the drive shaft which is the bearing surface within the roller bearing. The drive shaft roller bearing runs within a hardened sleeve, called the drive shaft roller bearing sleeve. This sleeve is pressed into the drive shaft roller bearing housing, so this roller bearing runs between two hardened surfaces. The new style roller bearing eliminates the outer sleeve.
The axle shaft is in two halves. On the inside end of each of these is keyed a bevel gear placed far enough to allow a short end for a bearing. A short distance from this end a groove is cut around the shaft. After being keyed onto the shaft, the differential gear is pressed far enough back to allow two half rings, or circle keys, called differential lock rings, to be placed in the aforementioned groove around the axle shaft. Then the gear is forced forward and over the lock rings, holding them in place. This keeps the gear from coming off the axle shaft when the wheel is tightened on the other end of the shaft.
On the back of the differential gears is left a hub which is ground to a bearing finish for wear on the differential case. After placing the axles with the bevel gears keyed thereto in the proper place in the differential case, the three differential pinions are placed on the arms of the spider, and the spider is placed over the end of one shaft, which fills one half of the hole in the center of the spider and leaves the other half for the end of the other axle shaft.
A fiber washer 1” x 1/32” is placed between the two axle shafts to prevent noise by not allowing the two shafts to butt together. The other half of the differential case is next placed over the gear on the end of the other shaft. The two differential gears are then placed in mesh with the pinions on the spider, and the two halves of the case are then drawn together by three studs 3/8” x 24 threads and 2-1/4” long. Thus the differential proper is assembled with the two axle shafts keyed thereon. The large ring gear or drive gear is bolted to the left half of the differential case.
All roller bearings used in the Ford car are made of a high grade alloy steel of rectangular cross section and wound in spiral form. The rollers are held in place in the races by the “cage,” which is composed of a flat ring at each end of the bearing; these rings are held together by bars. In the case of the drive shaft bearing, there is a bar between every two rollers, known as the high duty type. The races are made of a high carbon steel on account of the high rate of speed as compared with the races on the axle shaft bearings, which are made of low carbon steel, carbonized and case hardened.
The rollers are assembled in the “cage” so that the spiral runs in the opposite direction on every other one. This condition assists greatly in the lubrication, as the oil will run to the left on one roller and to the right on the next one, keeping the rollers and races perfectly lubricated.
The bearings used on the rear axle run inside of a split race or lining; the slot is “V” shape to cause a continuous contact when in operation; there are projections on the lining used to locate it in the housing and the hole in the one on the outer end of the axle is used for lubricating purposes. When the cages are assembled the bars are welded in place.
Length and diameter of drive shaft 53-5/8 to 53-3/4 x 1”
Drive shaft sleeve—inside diameter 1” x 3-1/16” long
Drive shaft roller bearing—length—2-5/8”
Thread on end of drive shaft— 5/8” x 18
Drive shaft tubing—50-1/2” long
Drive shaft tube is 49-5/16” from face to center of universal joint ball.
Drive shaft bushing—1” bore x 1-3/4”long
Hub diameter of differential gear 1.808”-1.809”
Gear case diameter—5.248”-5.249”
Diameter of gear end of axle shaft 1.062” to 1.063”
Bearing end of axle shaft 1.062” to 1.063”
Length of axle shaft—31-1/32”-31-3/32”
Babbitt thrust plates and steel thrust plates are all 3-3/4” outside diameter. Babbitt .l98”-.202”
Steel thickness .0875’-.0883” New .085”-.087”
Diameter of center hole in thrust plates 2.250”
Fiber washer—1 x 1/32”
Height of assembled differential case 3.623”-3.625”
Housing diameter for roller bearing sleeves 2.208 to 2.211”
Diameter of bell 8.752”-8.754” inside of 9-1/4”outside.
From center of ring gear in housing to the face of housing for drive shaft tubing is 4.592”-4.595”
Brake pull rod clips are 18” from center of clips to center of radius rod bolt holes.
Since the wheels, therefore, flare outward at the top their ability to withstand a side blow which is nearly always applied at the lower part as in resisting a turn, is reduced. However, this is circumvented by dishing the wheel; that is, by slanting the spokes outward at the rim. Thus the declination of the wheel is offset by the inclination of the spokes, and the weight of the car is supported more vertically and the strains on the wheels are reduced.
By tilting the axle backwards the axle is in a more favorable position to resist jolts and shocks. Any shifting of the wheels from the straight ahead position works directly against the weight of the car so the tendency is for the wheels to swing back to their original position.
The Ford axle is tilted backward at the top spring perches at an angle of five and one-half degrees or 1/4 to 5/16” along the length of the spindle body.
The material used is Ford alloy steel. This type steel is also used in the spindles and spring perches.
Under test the Ford axle has been twisted, cold, several times without fracturing.
Heat at 1650° F for 1-1/4 hours; cooled to atmospheric temperature.
Heat again to 1540° F for 1-1/4 hours and quenched in soda water.
Annealed to 1020° F for 2-1/2 hours and allowed to cool.
The tensile strength after hardening process is about 76,000 lbs. and after the drawing process runs up to 125,000 to 145,000 lbs. per square inch. If the axle is bent it is straightened cold.
The wheel axles or spindle assemblies are set between bosses integral with the main axle body. A hardened steel bolt holds each in place. These bolts are drilled at their heads and provided with small dust, caps, thus each is a combined oil cup and bolt.
The spindle assembly consists of the wheel axle, steering arm, inner or stationary cone, also called the ring cone, the outer cone, the steel washer and hex nut. The steering arm and ring cone are tight fits and must be pressed into place; the arm is held by a hex castle nut and cotter pinned. In order that the bolt may not slip easily through the tie bar yoke and steering arm, the hole on the arm for this purpose is lined up carefully after the arm is secured. The right spindle is threaded left hand and the left hand spindle the opposite way.
Heat Treating of Cones
Heat treating of all cones 1450° F. for 20 minutes. Ring cones are quenched in soda water and then drawn in oil at 400° F. for 20 minutes. The adjustable cones are dipped in the soda water, then quickly immerse4 in the drawing oil. This results in a tougher and more substantial cone. Being adjustable they must fit more or less loosely on the spindles, so do not have the solid backing that the larger ring cone has.
These rods, or tubes, are pressed cold from sheet steel and the seam brazed, so if bent the original strength cannot be restored by straightening. The point of fastening of the radius rods to the car is a ball and socket joint brazed to the lower crank case.
Prom a ball on the tie rod, a rod is led to the ball arm of the steering gear. This connecting rod is called the drag link, and it is through this rod that the spindle assemblies are controlled by the steering gear.
Formerly one of the sockets at the end of the rod was forged from the rod itself while the other was made and brazed. Now both are forged directly from the rod. They are set at an angle of 40° to each other.
Construction and Heat Treating of Springs
The leaves are heated separately at 1560° F. for 12 minutes and each is then placed in a special machine which bends it to the required arc and is then immediately quenched in oil. The leaf is held between two jaws shaped to the necessary arc and while thus held is immersed in the oil. Each machine has four such jaws and the operation is continuous. As the jaws return, bringing the leaf to the surface, they open automatically, the leaf sliding to a container. After being shaped they are drawn in sodium nitrate at 850° F. Sodium nitrate is used since it is not volatile at that high temperature.
After cooling they are bolted together through their centers and the clips set in position. The clips hold the bands together and in alignment so that on a rebound, the whole spring assembly will act as a unit and not throw the strain entirely on the first or eye leaf.
Spring Tests for Load and Endurance
The Ford spring will stand a load of 2000 lbs. before it is straightened out, and around 100,000 continuous vibrations before it will break. At 2000 lbs. each leaf is practically a straight line and therefore rests firmly on its neighbor, supporting it along the whole length at the same weight.
The test for endurance is performed on a special machine for that purpose. The spring is held by its ends and the center forced down and back again at the rate of 120 times per minute. Some springs have stood as high as 130,000 vibrations, but the average is about 100,000.
The point of breaking varies from the center to practically any point of the length. Although being pierced in the center by the drilled hole, only about one third of the test springs break at this point.
The parts of the steering gear which are fastened directly to the front axle are the spindle assemblies which are set between bosses integral with the main axle body. A hardened steel bolt holds each in place. These bolts are drilled at their heads and provided with small dust caps, thus each is a combined oil cup and bolt.
The spindle assembly consists of the wheel axle steering arm, inner or stationary cone, also called the ring cone, the outer cone, the steel washer and hex castle nut. The steering arms of this assembly extend towards the rear of the car and these arms are fastened together by a transverse rod called a tie rod. This tie rod is moved crosswise by a drag link. One end attaches to the right hand end of the tie rod whose other end is attached to the ball arm at the lower end of the steering column. Movement of this ball arm pulls the steering link one way or the other, and through the tie rod and spindles the front wheels are turned.
The tie rod is of such length that when one of the front wheels is turned the other turns also, but to either a greater or less degree than the first one. Regardless of the amount that either wheel is turned, it will be found that lines through their spindles point to one and the same point and that this point lies in a line drawn through the rear axle. However, a stop device located on the inside of the gear case allows the spider assembly to revolve only a limited distance in either direction.
The construction of that part of the steering gear which is directly acted upon by the hand wheel consists of a shell on the inside surface of which are gear teeth (36 in number). This shell is fastened to the upper end of the steering gear column housing and remains stationary. In mesh with the teeth in this shell are three small pinions, (12 teeth cut on each) which are mounted on a triangular plate fastened to the upper end of the shaft extending down through the center of the steering column. The steering wheel carries another small pinion which meshes with all three of the pinions which are attached to the steering column shaft.
When the steering wheel is turned by hand it revolves the central pinion, and in doing so causes the three steering shaft pinions to roll around the inside of the toothed shell. In traveling around the inside. of this shell the three pinions carry with them the triangular piece on which they are mounted, and the steering shaft is thus caused to go through part of a revolution.
It will be realized that if it were possible it would require several revolutions of the steering wheel and its gear to cause the three pinions to travel all the way around inside of the shell. It therefore requires a considerable part of a revolution of the steering wheel to effect any great change in position of the steering shaft. This seduction of motion increases the force applied by the driver to the road wheels and gives better control of the direction in which the car travels.
Steering Gear Material
Toughness is more desired than hardness, for the whole mechanism is forced to undergo, generally, sudden and severe shocks and any brittleness, of the parts would result in sudden breakage, the only heat-treated parts of the steering assembly being the ball arm and gear studs and the bushing for the driving gear shaft. The bracket which holds the column firmly to the frame of the car is of malleable iron. The metal absorbs shocks and vibration readily, and being ductile, resists breaking to a very great extent. The gears and main driven shaft are of cold rolled steel. The gear case or internal gear is of bronze, bronze used not only for the formerly mentioned reasons but because it is easily and accurately machined.
Steering wheel rims are solid rubber 16” in diameter. Steering ball arm—H. R. steel; planetary pinion gears, driving pinion gear, and drive shaft—cold rolled steel; gear case—bronze. Overall length of driven shaft 54-5/16”. Angle to dash 39 degrees 45”. Distance of steering wheel to dash 29-27/32”. Steering post case—pressed steel.
Two separate and distinct brakes are provided. One of these brakes acts on a drum carried with the transmission gearing and is called the service brake; it is of the external contracting type and is operated by the right hand foot pedal. The other brake acts directly on the rear wheel hubs through drums fastened to the hubs and into which brake shoes are expanded when a pull is exerted on rods which attach to the controller shaft. This wheel brake is called the emergency brake and is of the internal expanding type.
The principal parts of the emergency brake consist of the steel drums, which are solidly fastened to the rear wheels, and two shoes which expand inside of each of these drums. The service brake is carried in the transmission and consists of a band which encircles the brake drum and of a foot pedal which acts to contract the band through linkage drawn tight when the pedal is pressed.
The service brake retards the motion of the car through its effect first on the brake drum and sleeve, then on the universal joint and the drive shaft, then through the rear axle driving gears and differential to the axle shaft and to the wheels. The differential serves to divide the braking effect equally between the rear wheels and in this way serves the purpose of what would be called a brake equalizer were such a device built as a separate part of the braking system. The division between the rear wheels of the braking effect exerted by pulling on the hand lever is not determined by any equalizing device, but depends for equal action on maintenance of correct length of the pull rods.
|U.S. FORD PASSENGER CAR PRICES|
Date: October 17, 1922
At Condor, South Dakota
|RW=Regular Wheels; DW=Demountable Wheels; SS=Self Starter|
|NOTE: The above prices are for immediate delivery, but if the price should be increased or decreased by
the manufacturer before a car has been delivered to a purchaser, it is understood that the price prevailing at time of
delivery will apply.|
NOTE: Ford Sedan and Coupe bodies are equipped with gas tanks, floor boards, cushions and mats.
Touring and Runabout Bodies are equipped with floor boards, rubber mats and cushions. No tops or windshields are included.
Ford engineers, in planning the construction of the truck, knew from large experience the essential features to incorporate in order to make it a success. Reduced to the simplest terms, these essentials were simplicity, strength, economy, service. To such an extraordinary degree were these qualities incorporated that the popularity of the truck was assured from the time the first model appeared on the market.
Power and Strength
The builders designed it with more than sufficient power to carry a ton. The frame, the axle, every bolt, nut and screw, in fact the entire mechanism throughout, is built for strength.
Economy of Upkeep
In the matter of gasoline and oil consumption, tire upkeep and general repair, it is the last word in economy.
All owners of Ford cars are agreed that there is nothing complicated in the mechanical details. The truck possesses this same simplicity.
Front axle of I-beam construction, especially drop-forged from Ford steel, insuring the highest quality of axle strength obtainable. Rear axle also of Ford steel, and enclosed in a tubular steel housing. The differential is of two-pinion type; all gears are drop-forgings made of Ford steel.
Dual system. Service brake operates on the transmission and is controlled by foot pedal. Expanding brake in rear wheel drums serves as emergency brake. It is controlled by hand lever on left side of car.
Float feed automatic with dash adjustment. Specially designed to give maximum power, flexibility and easy starting, with economy of fuel consumption.
Multiple steel disc, operating in oil.
On the left side of car. Three foot-pedal controls, low and high speeds, reverse, and brake on the transmission. Hand levers for neutral and emergency brake on left side of car. Spark and throttle levers directly under steering wheel.
By Thermo-Siphon water system. Extra large water jackets and a special Ford vertical tube radiator to permit of a continuous flow of water and prevent excessive heating. A belt-driven fan is also used in connection with the cooling system.
Is of the worm type, enclosed in a dust and oil-proof housing. Direct shaft drive to the c enter of chassis; only one universal joint is necessary. A ball socket arrangement in the universal joint reduces shocks and strains caused by the unevenness of the road.
Tank of 8 Imperial or 9-1/2 U.S. gallons capacity mounted directly on frame.
Combination gravity and splash system. Oil is poured into crank case through the breather pipe on the front cylinder cover. All moving parts of motor work in oil and distribute it to all parts of the power plant.
Special Ford design, built in and made a part of the motor. Only two parts to the Ford magneto, a rotary part attached to the fly-wheel and a stationary part attached to the cylinder casting. No brushes, no commutators, no moving wires to cause annoyance on the Ford Magneto.
Four-cylinder, four cycle. Cylinders are cast in one block with water jackets and upper half of crank case integral. Cylinder bore is three and three-quarter inches. The Ford motor develops full twenty horse-power. Special Ford removable cylinder head permits easy access to pistons, cylinders and valves. Lower half of crank case, one-piece pressed steel extended so as to form bottom housing for entire power plant; air-proof, oil-proof, dust-proof. All interior parts of motor may be reached by removing plate on bottom of crank case—no “tearing down” of motor to reach crank shaft, cam shaft, pistons, connecting rods, etc. Ford steel is used on all Ford crank and cam shafts and connecting rods.
Both front and rear springs are semi-elliptical transverse, all made of specially Ford heat-treated steel. Ford springs are the strongest and most flexible that can be made.
By Ford planetary reduction gear system. Steering knuckles and spindles are forged from special Ford heat-treated steel, and are placed behind front axle.
Three Point Suspension
Each of the Ford units is suspended at three points of the chassis. This method of suspension insures absolute freedom from the strain on the moving parts.
Ford spur planetary type, combining ease of operation and smooth, silent running qualities. Clutch is so designed as to grip smoothly and positively, and when disengaged to spring clear away from the drums, thus assuring positive action and maximum power.
There are four complete units in the construction of a Ford car— the power plant, the front running gear, the rear running gear and the frame.
Extra large, all on right side of motor and enclosed by a small steel plate.
Model T Truck has a wheelbase of one hundred twenty-four inches. The standard tread for all cars is fifty-six inches. Model T truck will turn in a forty-six foot circle.
Wheels and Tires
Wooden wheels of the artillery type with extra heavy hubs. Only tires of the highest grade are used on Ford cars. Front pneumatic, 30 x 3-1/2”, rear wheels, solid rubber tires 32 x 3-1/2” or pneumatic cord 32 x 4-1/2 inches.
Lubricant For Worm
An A-1 heavy fluid or semi-fluid is used to lubricate differential in Model T Truck.
With standard gearing, a speed of not more than 15 m.p.h. is recommended, and with special gearing, a speed of not more than 22 m.p.h. is recommended.
While the truck is being introduced largely because it offers cheaper hauling than horses, a factor equally as important is its ability to do things entirely beyond the horse. It will carry twice the load in half the time. Many trucks are carrying raw materials to factories. The absence of this service rendered would often mean that thousands of men would go idle for lack of the material on which they work.
It Takes a Five-Acre Crop to Feed One Horse For One Year
For every horse supplanted with a Ford Truck, five acres is added to the farm. The truck will make available for raising food stuffs the land whose yearly crop is otherwise required to feed a horse.
The Ford Truck Assists the Farmer Through the Rush Season
Where there is a shortage of labor, Ford trucks conserve by hauling grain, hay and corn. It is as essential on the farm as the binder.
The Ford Truck Gives the Farmer More Time For Cultivation of Crops
Many farmers have been inclined to decrease the production of perishable foodstuffs, owing to the time required for hauling to market and the shortage of labor. Lots of fruit, vegetables and other produce which could be marketed are left on the farm to rot. The use of the truck in Rural Motor Express Lines, offers the best possible medium through which Farmers, Truck Growers, and Dairymen may go to market; thus increasing the local food supply of perishables.
The Ford Truck “Eats” Only When It is Working
The Ford truck has no expense for food during idle hours. It never goes lame, gets the colic or dies.
The Ford Truck Gives the Farmer Top-Notch Produce Prices
The Farmer depends as much on rapid access to market as on the productivity of his farm. The prices obtained for many classes of produce depends to a large extent upon placing them on the market at the right time in good condition.
The Ford Truck Saves Shrinkage in Hauling Live Stock
The truck has many uses in farm work, one of which is the hauling of live stock to market. A certain live stock farmer, being at first skeptical regarding the adaptability of a truck to his work, finally did purchase one and discovered that the increased revenue obtained for his stock, because of the reduced shrinkage in hauling them to market by truck, as against his old method, more than paid for the cost of each trip.
The Ford Truck Hauls Cheaper than a Team
The expense of operating a truck is about one-half or less than that of a team. The total cost of operation for gasoline, oil, grease and tires will range from 6 to 10 cents per mile. Modern farmers know enough about mechanics to operate and maintain trucks economically, and two or more farmers with not enough use for a truck apiece can buy and operate one together.
The Ford Truck Will Give the Farmer Two Hours More Working Time Each Day
The farmer living twenty miles from town and using a truck, is just as near as one five miles away who depends on team hauling. The truck saves two hours or more each day that would otherwise be spent in harnessing, feeding and watering a team.
The Data Book continued with several pages of various businesses which might have use for the Ford truck, along with possible applications in those businesses. These are not included here because of their limited interest today.
Also there were many pages showing various methods of financing the purchase of a Ford, a list of U.S and Canadian serial numbers, and coverage of the Fordson tractor. These, too, are not included here.
Biography which appeared in the 1923 Ford Data Book
Nights he did repairing in a watch and jewelry shop. And for eight years Henry Ford followed this line, working in various shops, but always adding to his fund of knowledge of machinery, and preparing himself for greater tasks.
During his 24th year, his father offered Henry Ford 40 acres of timbered land provided he returned to the farm. He accepted the land and accordingly returned, bringing with him his shop, which boasted many new tools. Immediately a sawmill and portable engine were obtained, and Henry Ford became a lumber manu-facturer. The same year he happily married Clara J. Bryant, born and raised only a few miles from his father’s farm. The issue of this marriage was an only child, a son, Edsel Bryant Ford.
With some of the first lumber from his mm, Henry Ford built on his new farm a house one and one-half stories high and thirty-one feet square. Into this he and Mrs. Ford moved. His shop was also brought to the new place, where he began work on a steam car. It was the first Ford passenger car, but was soon abandoned, because though boiler after boiler was experimented with, none proved satisfactory.
He stayed on the farm two years, but again left for the city to become night shift engineer in a lighting company at a salary of $45.00 a month. However, his general ability and genius in making impromptu repairs, soon brought him entire charge and raised his salary to $125.00, which he earned for seven years with the same company.
A small brick shed in the rear of his home was fitted into a work shop, and then Henry Ford, often working far into the morning hours—devoted his spare time to creating his first gas car. It was—or is, for it still runs—a two cylindered motor car with a speed of from 25 to 30 miles an hour. A company was formed with Henry F ord as chief engineer, and a few cars were built. This con-nection not being satisfactory, he withdrew in 1901 to begin building another car, which was completed in 1902. In 1903, the present Ford Motor Company was organized. Mr. Ford owned 25-1/2% of the stock, and held the position of Vice-President and Factory-Manager. The company was capitalized for $100,000 but not more than $28,000 in cash was ever paid into the treasury of the company.
Henry Ford soon realized that his own ideas and policies, which were very clearly defined, could not be carried out unless he should be in free control. Accordingly, in 1906, he purchased sufficient stock to bring his holdings up to 51%, and a short time later, at seven to one, procured 7-1/2% more, making a total of 5 8-1/2%. This arrangement continued until 1919, when Edsel Ford, who had succeeded his father as president, purchased the remaining 41-1/2% of the stock. The company was reorganized under the laws of Delaware for an authorized capitalization of $100,000,000, and this Is the present arrangement.
The first car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company was on the road in June and sold the early part of July, 1903. However, no sooner had “production” begun in the Ford Plant, than Henry Ford began building racing cars, for in the early days of the industry, practically every noteworthy automobile company entered its cars in the races.
The first Ford racer, piloted by Henry Ford himself, won race after race in all parts of the country. No entry list was considered complete until the Ford was in. With “999” Henry Ford first broke the mile a minute record on an ice track at Baltimore Bay In 1904. The remarkable feats of Ford cars probably did as much to make known the name of Ford as any other circumstance.
The growth of the Ford Motor Company has been progressive, continuous; and at all times impelled by the personality of its founder. The present plant site contains three hundred and five aces, of which one hundred and twenty-three are under roof; and 50,000 and more employees work in this huge factory.>/p>
There are 32.000 windows washed each day.
Payroll of over $500,000 per day.
Most up-to-date fire alarm system in the world. 300 Fire Alarm Stations in the factory.
45,100,000 cubic feet of gas is produced daily.
3,000,000 gallons of water refrigerated each day.
Ford band consists of 60 pieces.
100 chemists in research laboratories.
Walls and columns faced with white enamel brick, and all other surfaces painted white. T hree 50-ton cranes, with parallel runways extending full length of building. The huge engines are composite gas-steam type (the only ones of the kind in use), and are rated 6,000 H.P. each. (A brief description of one will answer for all); the gas side has tandem cylinders, 42 x 72 in., and the steam side tandem compound cylinders, 36 x 68 and 72 inches. Between the two engines are mounted a 100-ton flywheel and a 4,000 k.w. 250-volt direct current generator; the latter being of unusual size owing to a speed of 80 R.P.M. The approximate weight of this dual gas-steam engine is 1,500,000 pounds—the steam engine weighing 700,000 and the gas one 600,000, and the generator and flywheel 200,000 pounds each. The bed on the steam side weighs 150,000 and on the gas side 140,000 pounds. the crankshaft is 25 ft. 2 in. long and 31 in. in diameter at the bearings and 34 in. for the flywheel, weighing 72,000 lbs.; the crank disc weighs 28,000 lbs., and the connecting rod, with boxes, 10,000 lbs. The gas engine piston rods weigh 14,000 lbs. and each piston 8,500 lbs., while the steam engine piston rods weigh 10,300 lbs. and the main cross head, on either engine, complete with shoes, pin and box, 6,000 lbs. Over all the engine measures 32 ft. in width, with length of 72 ft., occupying a floor space of 2,304 sq. ft. The generator extends 14 ft. 5 in. above the floor and 11 ft. underneath. There are nine of these gas-steam engines, and in addition, one smaller steam engine and four great pumps.
|Ford Cars and Trucks|
|Aug. 1, 1919
Dec. 31, 1919
|1922 (1st 11 months only)||62,842|
Production during 1917 and 1918 was materially affected by war demands. Many thousands of Ford cars were made for army service—staff cars, ambulances and trucks. The company also produced volumes of other war materials. Upon the signing of the armistice the United States Government gave us a citation as being a 100% war work organization.